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Make up couch

Make up couch

Sometimes called a couch or a davenport, a sofa is a long upholstered seat with both arms and a back. Today, it is a common luxury that indicates humans’ progression away from the nomadic «pack and evacuate» lifestyle of our recent past.


Upholstery technically dates back to ancient Egypt, where pharoahs’ tombs were furnished with comfortable appointments preserved to last a millennia. Ancient Egyptians and their Roman contemporaries reserved such items for royalty and other social elites. In the West, upholstery as we know it today developed slowly as building architecture improved. Prior to the 1500s, woven artifacts known as tapestries were the main source of insulation, protecting inhabitants from the damp and cold, that seeped in through their walls. Seating for two or more people was usually supplied by a hard bench.

Once the need for protection from the elements decreased, fabrics could be used for decoration and on individual pieces of furniture. Contributions to interior design were made from all major European centers. Germans introduced the use of horsehair padding, still a central feature of properly upholstered furniture. The English preferred dried sea moss. Italians introduced backrests and arms during the Renaissance. Upholstered chairs had been invented already, but were not popularized until this time. The sofa with a down cushion was an extension of the upholstered chair. Minor adjustments were made to stuffing methods, such as using buttons to secure padding rather than the practice of «tufting» (sewing raised loops or cut pile into the fabric).

The eighteenth century «upholder» was a combination designer and decorator who completed an architect’s vision of a room. Cabinet makers like George Hepplewhite, Matthias Lock, Henry Copland, and the far more reknowned Thomas Chippendale extended their woodworking enterprises into this new and exciting field of upholstery. A rash of what were called «pattern books» by these and other practitioners, with such names as The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Guide, set the pace. They contained sofa designs as well as new ideas for other practical and decorative pieces.

During the nineteenth century, the advent of industrial technology had a major impact on modern methods of upholstery. In 1850, coil springs were invented. A modern sofa typically, though not always, contains springs to even out weight distribution. The sewing machine was also developed during this period, speeding up the upholstery process. New improvements such as modern welting would not be possible without the sewing machine.

Raw Materials

The frame of a sofa is made most often wood, though newer options include steel, plastic, and laminated boards or a combination of the above. Kiln-dried maple wood deemed free of knots, bark, and compromising defects is used under the upholstery. The show wood of the legs, arms, and back can also be maple, but sometimes mahogany, walnut, or fruitwoods are used for carved legs or moldings.

Padding is primarily made from animal hair, particularly hog or horse. Other paddings used in mass production are foam and polyester fiberfill wrap. Some preprocessing may be necessary, as with the prematted rubberized hair, where animal hair is arranged and bonded into shape with glue.

Cushions are fashioned from polyurethane foam, polyester fiber, down, cotton, latex, or cotton-wrapped springs.

A sofa may be covered with any choice of synthetic, natural, or blended fabric. Wool and nylon are the best choices in their respective categories of natural and synthetic fibers, but cotton, acetate, rayon, and polyester have their own functional properties. Exterior fabric may be finished with a protective anti-stain coating.

When used, springs are made of tempered steel. A typical sofa calls for 15 yd (13.71m) of burlap and at least 10 yd (9.14 m) of muslin for the interior. All materials are fastened with approximately 1,000 or more tacks, over 200 yd (182.8 m) of twine, and hundreds of yards of machine sewing thread.


Sofas come in three major sizes. The full sofa is 84 in (2.13 m) wide. Smaller versions like the two-seater and love seat range between 60-80 in (1.52-2.03 m). Variations on the standard sofa include modular items and sofas with special uses such as daybeds or convertible sofa beds. Ornamental designs are not necessarily less durable, but they do not invite casual use. The design of a sofa can be adjusted to the use that will be made of it, and the average size of the people who will use it most. A deep seat, for instance, is good for taller people but does not easily accommodate shorter individuals. The style of a sofa is generally set by its arms, which double as artistic statements and rests. Some styles of seating furniture are known by the names of these arm designs. The overstuffed sofa is called that in the trade in order to indicate the use of more than one layer of muslin in the foundation.

The Manufacturing

A single sofa takes up 300 to 600 hours of skilled labor to make. Even small companies and individuals avail themselves of power saws and other motorized machinery, yet specialized hand tools are still applied to detail work. These include the regulator for stuffing, the «ripping tool,» and a type of pliers called diagonal cutters.

After President Abraham Lincoln’s assassination, his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, purchased an expensive parlor suite for use in her new life as a widow. The suite included a sofa, table, two arm chairs, and several side chairs, and was probably manufactured by J & J.W. Meeks of New York.

Epitomizing the Victorian era, the sofa represents the ultimate in mid-nineteenth century comfort and decoration. The technology of the time allowed for the use of coil springs, giving the seat a cushion-like softness that returns to its taut shape as soon as pressure is removed. New technologies also gave way to the lavishly carved show wood on the back. Ordinarily, the almost three dimensional fruit and flowers design would split the wood, however thin layers of rosewood were cross-directionally glued together to form a stronger wood laminate able to withstand the carving. Once glued together, the entire lamination was steamed and forced to curve with the back of the sofa.

The bent plywood system would be utilized again (100 years later) by Charles Eames in order to create his famous chairs. They would be the stylistic antithesis of Mrs. Lincoln’s ornate Victorian sofa, but just as chip and crack resistant.

The nitty-gritty of assembly is where the differences between traditional craft and


  • 1 First the frame is constructed from wood that has been found clear of any defects. The thickness of the wood should allow for the heavy tension webbing to follow. If the frame is not sufficiently strong, it will not bear the weight redistributed into it by the webbing whenever someone sits down. Arms, back, or back sections, seat, and legs are attached. The preferred method is with clean-cut, fitted double doweled glue joints reinforced with comer braces, glued and also screwed into place. Each major part of the sofa will have to have springs attached separately, and also be padded separately. Consequently, they are «framed out» with reinforcing slats, arranged around the seat section.

Webbing and springs

  • 2 The foundation is then set for padding. Jute, a kind of burlap made in India, is used as webbing. Strips of this material are interwoven, stretched across the frame, and tacked down. Flax twine is then used to strap the springs onto the webbing. Two lines of twine are tacked into position and then tied around a spring back to front. Another pair of lines will run side to side on each row of springs after all the springs have been lashed into position individually. If heavy-gauge springs are used in the «front row,» these are further tied down with a length of wire. This process is repeated for the back, with special attention to the springs at the base, which are treated like the front row of seat springs. If the back comes in sections (sometimes three for design purposes), then each part is separately tied off and the twine ends tacked onto the four-sided frame. The same is true for any sides and arms. Each part will be wrapped in its own sheet of burlap after being completely fitted with secured springs. The burlap is cut to size for each part, tacked into place initially, and then tightly lashed to the springs to minimize movement. This is to prevent the springs from wearing through the burlap over time.


  • 3 Each part is separately padded as well, with layers of burlap and horsehair or chosen synthetic material. The padding is placed in a burlap envelope, arranged on the edge of the seat, pinned into place, and stitched down. As the stitching progresses, the pins can be removed one by one. This roll is then shaped according to design requirements and stitched with special needles and more twine. After this is secured yet still pliable, a layer of about 15 lb (6.81 kg)


  • 5 Every piece and panel that will be fabric covered must be measured and recorded in a cutting list. The fabric is purchased in one piece or lot. The panels are then plotted out in chalk so they match wherever their seams will meet when finally applied. If any of the panels and pieces need to be sewn together before being attached to the padded frame, this is taken care of first. The seat is covered with panels for the platform and nose and hand-stitched into place along the break between them over a layer of cotton batting. The nose is then covered first to check if the pattern continues along the front properly. The covering is fitted over the back or platform end and secured. The arms are covered next after being prepped with their own layers of cotton batting. A fan-pleated arm is a classic look. The fabric is folded into place around the front roll, in a series of pleats that look like an opened fan when finished. A series of strategically placed cuts may be made, so the fabric clears all obstructions presented by the frame. The top, bottom, back, and pleated front are operated on in succession. Temporary tacks are replaced one by one with permanent tacks.
  • 6 Other parts to be covered, like the back or its sections, may require machine sewing and the attachment of pull tabs that will allow the fabric to be stretched between frame slats and secured. Cotton batting is layered on as well, and the appropriate panel of fabric laid down, basted, stretched fully into place, and fixed with tacks. The outside is the last part to be padded and covered, starting at the arms. The open area is covered with a layer of burlap, an outside cotton padding, and finally the finishing fabric. Covering is fabric-stitched on top and tacked into place on the bottom, front, and back. The largest panel left open is the outside back. If the webbing has left any gaps between frame slats, these must be stuffed. Padding should be basted over the gaps along the whole outside back. The fabric panel for this section may be welted, or edged with a decorative strip made of stuffing cord covered in matching fabric. The covering is basted, then sewn at the top and tacked at the bottom as with the other parts.
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  • 7 After the sofa is flipped and covered at the base with a cambric (dust cover), finishing touches are then applied. The sofa may be fitted with one of several choices of skirt. Arms may be supplied with welted panel covers. Cushions are made separately to cover the seat. These are constructed most often from a jacket of ticking, encasing two pads that in turn frame an inner core of foam. Each one is covered with finishing fabric panels supplied with a back zipper, so the case can be removed for dry cleaning.

Quality Control

Quality control is more a matter of individual or company standards than government regulations. Manufacturers’ warranties range from five to 10 years to a lifetime.

The Future

Sofas continue to be made by individual craftsmen and small workshops as well as factories. There are different ways to learn how to make sofas and other upholstered items. North Carolina State University offers an industrial engineering bachelor’s degree that specializes in furniture manufacturing. In addition to courses in product engineering and facilities design, they sponsor field trips to local factories and workshops in industry-specific computer applications.

Where to Learn More


Beard, Geoffrey W. Upholsterers and Their Work in England: 1530-1840. Yale University Press, 1997.

Brumbaugh, James E. Upholstering. Audel Books, 1992.

Gheen, W. Lloyd. Upholstery Techniques Illustrated. Tab Books, 1994.

James, David. Upholstery: A Complete Course. Sterling Publishers, 1993.

Zimmerman, Fred W. Upholstering Methods. Goodheart-Willcox Co., 1992.


Colborn, Marge. «Is This A Good Sofa?» The Detroit News Homestyle Section, August 3, 1996.

UIU Journal/Upholsterers’ Journal. Upholsterers’ International Union of North America, 1922-present.

Upholstering Today/Furniture Today. Communications/Today Ltd., 1986-present.


Joines, Jeff. «FMMC Sponsored Field Trips.» March 1996. (July 14, 1997).

Wright, Monte. «Heirloom Upholstery’s Introduction to Upholstery Home Course» (video and companion booklet).

Jennifer Swift Kramer

Make up couch

to make up the couch

Idiom Definition

«to make up the couch»

to prepare a couch with sheets, pillows and blankets such that a person could temporarily use it as a bed

Idiom Scenario 1

Two friends are talking .

Friend 1: It’s great of you to come for a visit. Sorry that I have only one bedroom.

Friend 2: That’s OK. I can sleep on the sofa.

Friend 1: If you don’t mind. I can make up the couch for you.

Friend 2: Sure. A sheet and a pillow would be great. I’ve brought my sleeping bag.

Idiom Scenario 2

A couple are fighting .

Wife: Your behavior is inexcusable. You can’t stay out until four o’clock in the morning drinking a gambling with your friends. You are not sleeping in this bed tonight.

Husband: Where will I sleep?

Wife: In the doghouse for all I care.

Husband: But .

Wife: You can make up the couch for yourself. And be sure to use a sheet. I don’t want stains on the couch.

to make up the couch — Usage:

formal X ->informal

Usage Frequency Index: 2

to make up the couch — Gerund Form:

Making up the couch for an unexpected visitor, she spread a sheet first.

to make up the couch — Examples:

1)В After dinner on the first night, we return to our room and I steel myself toВ make up the couchВ bed for the little people.

2)В He didn’t ask. He didn’t say why. So I cancel my after work plans, and head home to make up the couchВ for him.

3)В The two awkwardlyВ make up the couchВ together so Aayan has somewhere to sleepВ .

4)В The best thing about old friends is not that they love you or trust you or that they’ll make up the couchВ in desperate moments.

5)В Asking for sheets toВ make up the couch, is a safe way to discover where his parents want you to spend the night.

6)В Where do you guys keep the sheets so I canВ make up the couchВ to sleep on?

7)В He refused to let me onto the highway when he got off it; instead he brought me to his little house and, with his wife,В made up the couchВ for me.

8)В I remember those things. We were poor and they made up the couch.

9)В He helps CarrieВ making up the couchВ for him and she begins to flirt with him heavily.

10)В JustВ making up the couch now.

11)В That may meanВ making up the couch and keeping it open or getting rid of piles of paperwork or computer clutter.

12)В I’d like them to realise that if I book a room with one bed for me and David that they don’t have toВ make up the couch.

13)В Even if you neither liked nor trusted him very much, you’dВ make up the couch and invite him to spend the night.

14)В We, however, pulled the short straw and had toВ make up the couch.

15)В To depict this via interminable silences as they wait for the kettle to boil andВ makeВ up the couch is the inverse of theatre.

16)В When I came home from college engaged to my long-time boyfriend, sheВ madeВ up the couch for him with the instruction that there would beВ .

17)В Made up the couchВ for Marg, said goodnight and we got ready for bed.

18) Why do I have to make up the couch

19) He’s your friend. You make up the couch

20) It’s just for one night. I’m sure she won’t mind if we make up the couch.

10 ways to transform your old sofa

Have an old sofa that isn’t really working for you anymore? This post is for you!

There are plenty of ways to update your old sofa. From quick and easy fixes to more permanent solutions, there is a solution for every old couch.

If you’re a regular reader here, you know I’ve had sofas on my mind lately. We have worn out old sofas in both our family room and our living room that I would love to replace with something shiny, new, and beautiful. I even shared my top picks for inexpensive sofa options a few weeks ago.

And while I still have my eye on a new couch for our family room, I know that there is absolutely no way we are buying two new sofas right now. So I’ve also been working to figure out how to update at least one of the sofas we already own.

Sofas might seem like one of those things that aren’t so DIY-able, but there are actually tons of things you can do to reinvent the less-than-beautiful old couch you already own.

I’ve rounded up the best updates I could find to help solve all of your sofa woes. (And mine.) Because let’s be real, sometimes buying a brand new sofa simply isn’t in the budget! Just click the links below to get all the details of the sofa transformations.

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This post contains affiliate links which means if you make a purchase after clicking a link I will earn a small commission but it won’t cost you a penny more. Click here to see my full disclosure policy.

10 Ways to transform your old sofa

Clean it

Sometimes it is amazing what a good deep cleaning can do for a couch. I was able to get a few more years out of our old microfiber sofa just by giving it a really good deep cleaning every now and then. You can check out my sofa cleaning method here.

Fix those saggy cushions

Another thing that can make a good couch look very, very bad is saggy and flattened cushions. I love this tutorial from Jen at Fresh Crush for restuffing your sofa and stopping the sag.

Cover it with pillows

One of the easiest ways to update a sofa you no longer love – just cover it with gorgeous pillows like Melissa from Polished Habitat did . It’s amazing how new pillows can completely change the look of a couch.

Replace your sofa legs

Want to make your modern sofa look more traditional? Or help turn your IKEA sofa into something a bit more custom looking? Just add new legs.

You can actually buy replacement sofa legs in all different styles and sizes and quickly switch them out. Rachel from Maison de Pax has a great tutorial for how she added some traditional style to her very modern sofa.

Add tufting

When Betty from Oh Everything Handmade wanted to give her Ikea Karlstad sofa some pizzazz, she added button tufting to the back cushions. I love how it gives the entire sofa a new, more tailored look.

Add nailhead trim

Sometimes it’s all in the details. Rasha from My Champagne Taste upgraded her plain sofa with some DIY nailhead trim. I love how classy it looks now.

Buy a slipcover

One of the easiest ways to completely change the look and color of your couch is to add a slipcover. A lot of popular sofa makers like IKEA and Pottery Barn sell special slipcovers that are tailored to fit their sofas exactly.

And even if your sofa doesn’t have it’s own line of slipcovers, you can find a slipcover to fit pretty much any couch out there. They may not fit quite as perfectly as a custom slipcover would, but they can still make a world of difference to an ugly sofa.

Even better, make your own slipcover

Buying a slipcover is certainly easier, but you can make a custom slipcover that fits your couch exactly for a lot less money. Plus, when you are making your own, you can choose any fabric you want.

I absolutely adore this custom slipcover Maggie from Maggie Overby Studios made for her couch. Not only is it so perfectly fitted that it looks like new upholstery, but she also used affordable, easy to wash IKEA curtains as her fabric. So smart!

Paint the upholstery

Okay, so this may be a bit nontraditional, but yes, you can actually paint your sofa’s upholstery!

If your couch is a color or pattern that you just can’t stand, paint can be a great way to give it new life. Jess from Domicile 37 painted a sofa she picked up for free and the result looks an lot like gorgeous black leather.

And Sue used a different method to paint her thrifted blue couch and turned it into a great neutral sofa.

Reupholster it

And finally, if you are ready to really make a change, you can reupholster that old sofa. When I found an old sofa on Facebook Marketplace for a steal, I knew I could bring it back to life. After painting the wood frame, I reupholstered the sofa with drop cloths for super cheap. And now it looks like a stunner from Restoration Hardware!

If you’ve ever updated a sofa, what did you do? And if you have a sad sofa now, do you think you are going to try to save it or are you just counting the days until you can buy a brand new one?

If you have furniture on the brain like me, you might also enjoy these posts:

Modular sofas

Make the most of your space with our versatile, adjustable modular sofas. Our flexible designs can help free up valuable floor space in your home.

What is a modular sofa?

Modular or sectional sofas are made up of a number of individual pieces that can be arranged into a shape to suit any modern living space, large or small. Whether you’re looking for a cosy 2-seater, a space-saving corner sofa or a 6-seater to fit the whole family, our modular sofas can be adapted for your needs.

What are the benefits of a modular sofa?

Ideal for urban flats or smaller rooms, the configurable modular sofa can eliminate wasted space and give you more room to personalise the way you relax. The flexibility is also great in larger spaces if you like to change your layout to keep things fresh. Each individual unit fits through small doors, tight halls and can be manoeuvred up flights of stairs with ease.

How do they work?

Modular sofas not only make a great feature piece for an open-plan living space but also create a natural divide between kitchen, dining and living areas. With a modular corner sofa or L-shaped sofa you can create a cosy break-off seating area for the whole family to enjoy.

Who are they for?

One of the best things about the modular movement is that it moves and adjusts with you, adapting and changing as your needs do. Whether you need to accommodate a growing family, or just fancy a new seating layout, our modular sofas can be easily downsized, extended or re-arranged.

Modular sofas are great as room dividers so if you have an open plan kitchen living space then they are a great way to section the room up but still making it a really social space.

Whether it’s your husband, your teenage son or maybe even Mum hiding from the kids to eat a chocolate bar in peace a ‘man cave’ is a space we can all aspire to have and a modular sofa can be the comfortable place to escape to.

Ideas for setting up

You can choose to set up your modular sofa as an integrated seating unit or you can scatter the individual units around the room. Our left-hand, right-hand and singular units come in a range of designs and fabrics to suit your interior choices.

Find your perfect layout

Add as many seats as you need along one wall with the straight sofa or utilise the space along two walls with the corner sofa or individual pieces that can be arranged into a shape to suit any modern living space, large or small. Whether you’re looking for a cosy 2-seater, a space-saving L-shape set-up. For larger rooms and bigger families U or C shaped seating arrangements can really bring a room to life.

DFS have a great range of brown sofas to choose from, you can order a swatch by talking to an advisor or by arranging for one of our team to give you a call, they are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Or why not look at our modern and contemporary furniture styles.

Are You Wearing Makeup At Home?

I’ve been trying to check in with my grandparents each day since we’ve been social distancing. It’s just a quick FaceTime, and I never really have much to update them on, but it’s nice. Every afternoon, without fail, the beginning of the conversation with my paternal grandmother goes like this:

Me: Hi Grandma!
[Some shuffling, as she rotates the phone, takes off her readers, pushes her bangs off of her forehead, and then…]
Her: Oh, if I had known you were going to call I would have put on some makeup!

It’s almost as if she thinks I don’t know what her real face looks like. Like I haven’t slept at her house and watched her cook me raisin bread French toast in her house shoes, hair still messy with bedhead. I always thought that maybe she was saying it to keep decorum. But the other day, when I called her via telephone to let her know that, in five minutes, I would be calling her back with video as my dad blew out his birthday candles, do you know what she did? She went and put on eyeshadow! To appear in a six-by-three inch blurry iPhone screen!

Or maybe this behavior makes perfect sense to you, because you’ve been waking up each morning for the past few weeks and putting on makeup. I don’t know! I, on for one, have not been wearing any. My reasons include:

  1. The only makeup I brought with me to my parents’ house is one concealer and five lip oils (which, . )
  2. I’ve been sitting outside a lot, and it’s hot here, so my face sweats
  3. I am taking this time to give my skin a break from coverage, and
  4. Makeup just doesn’t feel essential to me when I’m working from home—I, too, have shut down all my non-essential business

My morning routine still starts with a trip to the bathroom. I still wash my face, apply my skincare, lotion up, brush my teeth, brush my hair. I walk to the kitchen, pour myself a cup of coffee and a glass of water, settle into “my desk” (the artist formerly known as the dining room table) and then I get to work in my pajamas. If I need a beauty pick-me-up, I’ll take a minute to rub some cuticle oil into my nail beds, or open up a new lipstick or blush. I don’t use it, I just look at it—looking at a beautiful color hasn’t stopped making my heart quicken.

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I keep wondering if most people are like me, or if they’re waking up and putting on a full face to feel special, or simply keeping up their daily makeup routine for a semblance of normalcy in the midst of unprecedented strangeness. But because it’s too late to add a question to the census, I’ll just ask here: what are you doing right now? Is makeup essential business?

The Couch Shop

A Lifestyle Shop

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Meet the Team

Yvonne Tiernan

For as long as I can remember I have loved sharing a new find with people whether that be something great for the family or a stylish piece for your home or wardrobe. I also wanted to create a space for artists and makers to sell their beautiful pieces. The Couch Shop is a curated collection for your home, family and even the odd gift to yourself.

I use everything in this shop myself and for my family. I hope this is somewhere where you’ll find something you love too. And please remember we are new to this venture and learning every day. If you make something you would like us to include please contact us at

Rachel Dubber

I come from a very creative family and started my artistic learning at a very young age in Galway, along the west coast of Ireland. Art was always nurtured and encouraged, but it took a back seat while I pursued my passion and love of animals and traveled the world to work full time with horses.

I returned to college as a mature student and earned an Honours Degree in Fine Art which led to me pursuing a full time career as an Artist.

Inspired by my childhood growing up in Connemara, my art, design and photography is deeply-rooted to my Irish heritage, nature and animals.

Simple Things

Simple Things is an Irish brand specialising in luxury alpaca textiles.

In Autumn 2009 Shane McGlynn and Breezy Kevany McGlynn went on a surf trip to Fanore, co. Clare. Sitting on their boards looking in from the sea they saw the beachside green fields were dotted with a herd of alpacas. They were immediately fascinated with these creatures and their wonderful fleece and flew to Peru to find out more.

Now they design from their beautifully restored 18th century stable yard studio beautiful textiles using the very finest Peruvian alpaca wool.

Yvonne Kelly

Yvonne is an Irish Jewellery Designer & Maker who creates silver and gold jewellery with a quirky twist. She describes it as fun and wearable art made to make you smile! Each piece is imagined, designed and handmade with love from her studio in Maynooth, Co. Kildare and hallmarked by the Irish Assay Office in Dublin Castle.

Yvonne is a registered professional member of The Design & Crafts Council of Ireland.

Susie C. Coveney-Conroy

I was born in Catalonia of an English mother and a Catalan father. I came to live in Ireland in 1993 where I married an Irish man.

After the birth of my son I started working with clay and made mugs with sheep on them. This evolved into a throwing stoneware mugs on the potter’s wheel. Together with my Mom Christine, a multi disciplinary artist, we have developed a variety of designs always related to Ireland and nature.

Glenn Gibson

Irish sculptor creating forms and exploring the medium of wire. My biggest source of inspiration is nature itself and this can be seen clearly with my tree fascination. The gamut of nature is represented in my work from insects and birds to mythical creatures and human figures.

There is a common thread to all that I create and that is the connectedness of all things. I am fascinated with what science is unravelling about the physical world and the hidden connections they are discovering which various religious figures and mystics have been pointing at for millennia. This is explored in my continuing series called «seemingly solid things», exploring the tenuous notion of the physical world being the essence of our existence.

Stephen Norton

Originally from Co.Monaghan, Stephen has been working in some form of creative practice for 15 years. After completing a degree in Model Design in the UK he began working in the film and TV industry in London. Between film projects he worked as an artist’s technician completing many large-scale projects.

Pursuing an interest in metalworking he began working with Matt Stanix Design as his lead assistant making one –off original pieces of metal furniture for a number of interior design companies in London.
Following a number of years abroad in Australia and Spain he moved back to Ireland last year, taking up residence in Galway. Recent work includes commissions for the theatre, events and film industry and his own furniture and lighting designs.

Lainey K

I am passionate about producing unique and contemporary designs – designed to give you a little giggle and a definite ‘feel good factor’ every time you see them, leaving you excited to share the experience and dying to come back for more.

My range of greeting cards contain a mix of stand out typography and creative design features, each with a contemporary feel – packed with a mix of wit, inspiration, happiness and fun. Every design starts off with an illustration on paper, which is followed by a transformation of my illustrations digitally, fusing both traditional and present-day processes.

Through LAINEY K, I am on a mission of communicating messages of self- care and well-being, and all round, want to make you feel good!

How to Clean a Couch

Related To:

plant in ceramic vase on wooden table with modern sofa

plant in ceramic vase on wooden table with modern sofa at home

Photo by: Khongkitw

We all love being couch potatoes but it’s no fun to lounge on a dirty sofa. Over time, crumbs, spilled soda, pet hair, dirt, and oil from your hands and feet build up on your couch and make it look dingy. No worries. Here’s how to clean a couch so that it’s ready for you to binge watch an entire season of your favorite TV show.

1. Vacuum. Use a hand vacuum or the brush attachment on your vacuum to clean debris and dirt from the sofa surface. Be sure to clean the crevices where pet hair, food crumbs, and dirt accumulate. If the cushions are not attached, remove them and vacuum both sides. If there’s a lot of pet hair, use a lint roller to remove hair the vacuum can’t get.

2. Clean the wood or metal areas. Wipe down the sofa feet and other non-fabric parts of the sofa with a solution of warm water and liquid dish soap.

3. Determine the type of fabric you’re dealing with. Find the tag on the couch and read the instructions for how to clean upholstery. Here are the codes found on labels:

  • WS: Use a mild detergent with a steam vacuum or a dry-cleaning detergent
  • S: Use a dry cleaner detergent only.
  • X: Use a vacuum only. No water.
  • W: You can use water to clean it.

4. Remove stains. Knowing how to clean a couch means knowing how to remove stains. You can use a commercial cleaner or you can make your own cleaners from natural ingredients you have in the kitchen. Homemade cleaners are cheaper and kinder to the Earth. Here’s how to clean a sofa, by fabric type:

  • For fabric upholstery, mix 1/4 cup vinegar, 3/4 warm water and 1 tablespoon for dish soap or Castile soap. Put in a spray bottle. Mist the soiled area. Scrub with a soft cloth until the stain lifts. Use a second cloth moistened with clean water to remove the soap. Dry with a towel.
  • For leather upholstery, mix 1/2 cup olive oil with 1/4 cup vinegar and put into a spray bottle. Spray the cleaner on the surface of the couch and buff with a soft cloth.
  • For synthetic upholstery, mix 1/2 cup of vinegar, 1 cup of warm water,and 1/2 tablespoon of liquid dish soap or castile soap in a spray bottle. Mist the soiled area and scrub with a soft cloth till the stain is gone.

5. Let the couch dry. Use a towel to soak up any excess water remaining on the sofa surface. Let the sofa air dry. If it’s humid, you may want to set up a box fan pointed at the sofa for speed drying. Water can cause cushions and fabric to mildew.

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